The Police Killing of Baek Nam Gi

This story have its beginning in last years massive demonstrations against the government of Park Geun Hye. The marches, organized by labour, civic and farmers’ groups, brought together protesters from all walks of life, against the government of conservative President Park Geun Hye, including her capitalist-friendly anti-workers policies and a decision to require middle and high schools to use only state-issued and history revisionist textbooks starting in 2017.

Han Sang Gyun who were one of the main organisers of the protests were sentenced to five years in prison. South Korean riot squad attacked protesters with water cannons and tear gas. Many times the water cannons were used against single protestors, among them were Baek Nam Gi. On Saturday November 14th, 2015, Mr. Baek were rushed to the hospital. After 10 months in a coma as a result of head injuries suffered after being hit by water cannon, he passed away on Sunday, 25 September, 2016.

Over the past ten months as he lay in hospital, Baek Nam Gi’s family has been trying all possible avenues to seek accountability. They filed a criminal case against seven officers involved in the killing, and brought a separate lawsuit against the state demanding compensation. The National Police Agency of south Korea conducted an internal investigation but did not release findings. To date, the south Korean authorities have accepted no responsibility for the incident, and not a single police officer involved in the incident has faced any charges for the killing.

Baek Nam Gi was expelled from school twice for protesting the rule of the current president Park Geun Hye father – military dictator Park Chung Hee. He was expelled from university in Seoul in 1971 for leading a demonstration against Park’s deployment of troops on college campuses to harass student activists. He was later allowed to re-enroll but was soon on the run from the police for organizing protests against Park’s constitutional revision aimed at extending his presidency.


Picture shows Park Chung Hee in Imperial Japanese Army uniform in 1944. Park is the father of the current south Korean puppet ruler Park Geun Hye and was the fascist military dictator of south Korea from 1961 to 1979 (when his own side shot him)

The same family of fascists that have a long tradition of banning opposition and in 1975, simultaneously as Mr. Baek was expelled, fascist dictator Park Chung Hee, issued a directive to police and local officials to “purify” the streets of undesirables. Police officers, assisted by shop owners, rounded up panhandlers, small-time street merchants selling gum and trinkets, disabled, orphans and other poor children dissidents, including a college student who’d been holding anti-government leaflets. Those who by the fascist regime considered as undesirables where taken to concentrations camps, that first in recent years has been revealed. Tens of thousands of people have died fighting the repressive puppet governments of south Korea. This is not the first time that the south Korean government should be held accountable for its crimes against its own citizens, and won’t be the last. In 1980, Mr. Baek was expelled a third time and sentenced to two years in prison for his activities.

Mr. Baek was born in 1947 in Boseong County in a rural community. Unlike former student activists who entered politics and became national figures in south Korea, Mr. Baek devoted himself to fighting for the rights of poor rural farmers. Outside the room that held Baek’s casket in Seoul National University Hospital over 500 people gathered to mourn, the same day as they found out that Mr. Baek passed away. Yoo Young-hoon, 64, said, “This is a very sad day. We think that the government should investigate the exact cause of Baek’s death and should apologize sincerely.”

Yoo had known Mr. Baek since 1987, through their work with the Korean Catholic Farmers Movement. He said he will fondly remember Baek as a kind man. “He was someone who sacrificed, who fought for our country’s democratization,” Yoo said.

The struggling people of south Korea will always carry the spirit of Mr. Baek. The south Korean authorities have caused the Baek family and friends great harm and distress, taking away a husband and father of two daughters and one son.


Dear comrade. We will never forget you, how you unselfishly dedicated your life to fight for the rights of the poor and oppressed. You fought against a powerful enemy for decades. When the oppressors couldn’t get you to fall to your knees, they went so far as they did on September 25, and took your life.

May you rest in peace.

Obama’s Last Speech to the UN – a Glorification of US-Imperialism

It is of course not surprising that a president of the United States glorifies imperialism, but when listening to what he is saying, compared to what the US is doing, can’t be dismissed as nothing else but hypocrisy. Obama begins to talk about how the US have taken away terrorist safe havens, strengthened the nonproliferation regime, resolved the Iranian nuclear issue through diplomacy. He even goes as far as by talking about how the US have “opened relations with Cuba” and “helped Colombia end Latin America’s longest war”. Nonproliferation is something Obama chooses to talk about just few days after that was revealed that Colin Powell wrote by email last year that “The boys in Tehran know Israel has 200, all targeted on Tehran, and we have thousands”, referring to nuclear missiles. The US have indeed opened up relations with Cuba, and would even allow US banks to operate in Cuba. The history between Cuba and the US is a long one, where the US have trained terrorists to carry out attacks against Cuba. Terrorist attacks against Cuba have cost 3478 lives and have left 2099 permanently disabled. The US have chosen to establish relations with Cuba just to get what they want, what they never managed to achieve through terrorism and financial warfare. Obama did nonetheless extend the embargo against Cuba by signing the Trading With the Enemy Act. So Cuba is still considered an enemy. When it comes to the revolutionary war in Colombia, of course the US would like to end it. The US is aware of that FARC and ELN would never be defeated by the reactionary government of Colombia nor the US imperialist forces in the country. On the other hand, see how the US is directly responsible for sectarian civil wars in Libya, Iraq and Syria, where they didn’t agree with their governments policies. It’s not that strange that the US wanted to bring peace to their puppet state in Latin America.

Another statement in his speech, a false claim where of that US assistance is helping people “feed themselves, care for the sick, power communities across Africa, and promote models of development rather than dependence”, is completely nonsense. The US imperialists will not provide help to anyone for free. The imperialists will always suppress African nations who is struggling for independence. When Muammar Gaddafi posed a serious threat to the imperialist world order’s dominance over Africa, with the idea of an African currency based on gold and independent from the US Dollar, it led to his death and the destruction of Libya. Where is this “development, rather than dependence” Obama speaks of?

He continues “I believe that as imperfect as they are, the principles of open markets and accountable governance, of democracy and human rights and international law that we have forged remain the firmest foundation for human progress in this century”. This comes from the same man that under his leadership developed The Disposition Matrix, informally known as a kill list, where the US have the right to render, torture and even kill suspected enemies of the United States government, without trial. The Disposition Matrix even goes beyond existing kill lists and is intended to become a permanent fixture of US policies. Remember when Obama first became president and promised to close the camp in Guantanamo Bay. As we know, it never happened, and it will never happen, as it serves the interests of US imperialism. We all know by now how the US authorities imprison black men and women, killing unarmed black men and women and still let the murderers within the racist police force get away. Poverty can’t be separated from the principles of open markets. To have a US-president speaking about human rights is like having a pedophile speaking about children’s rights.

Obama is later contradicting himself by saying the following: In developing countries, labor organizations have often been suppressed, and the growth of the middle class has been held back by corruption and underinvestment. Mercantilist policies pursued by governments with export-driven models threaten to undermine the consensus that underpins global trade. And meanwhile, global capital is too often unaccountable — nearly $8 trillion stashed away in tax havens, a shadow banking system that grows beyond the reach of effective oversight.A world in which one percent of humanity controls as much wealth as the other 99 percent will never be stable. I understand that the gaps between rich and poor are not new, but just as the child in a slum today can see the skyscraper nearby, technology now allows any person with a smartphone to see how the most privileged among us live and the contrast between their own lives and others. Expectations rise, then, faster than governments can deliver, and a pervasive sense of injustice undermine people’s faith in the system.

Welcome to capitalism, president Obama.

He continues: So how do we fix this imbalance? We cannot unwind integration any more than we can stuff technology back into a box. Nor can we look to failed models of the past. If we start resorting to trade wars, market distorting subsidies, beggar thy neighbor policies, an overreliance on natural resources instead of innovation — these approaches will make us poorer, collectively, and they are more like to lead to conflict. And the stark contrast between, say, the success of the Republic of Korea and the wasteland of North Korea shows that central, planned control of the economy is a dead end.

What is laughable is that he just explained how the US is working. The US is always engaging in trade wars and market distorting subsidies against other countries. The US Dollar is based oil, so the US economy is indeed over-reliant on oil and several wars and coups staged by the US have been about their global dominance over oil.

That a US-president attacks the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) while praising their south Korean puppets is nothing new either, but the imaginary image made up is of a new calibre. Obama can speak how much he like about social progress, but that doesn’t change facts. The US is considered to be the richest country in the world, but still 18 homeless per 10,000 people. South Korea that Obama consider so successful also have the same social problems. If Obama ever went to the DPRK himself, he would know that the economy and social progress is flourishing without capitalism in the DPRK, despite the countless embargoes imposed by the imperialists. While empty houses outnumbers the homeless in the US by five times (and similar in other capitalist countries), housing is provided free of charge to all citizens of the DPRK by the revolutionary government. As you know, capitalism only provides basic services necessary to live a decent life if you can afford it, and would rather have empty houses without generating money, then have people living there for less than what the capitalist intend to earn. As the government of the DPRK is subordinated to the Korean people, there would never be any issues that capitalism brings. When did we ever vote for capitalism and its continuous problems such as unemployment homelessness? While the US makes things that homeless people often are doing, illegal,homelessness would never be accepted in the DPRK, neither by the people nor its government.


Homeless People, Los Angeles, USA.


Homeless Veteran With all Possession on Bicycle, California, USA.


Homeless Man, Seoul, South Korea.


Housing Free of Charge, Pyongyang, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

The Hypocrisy Surrounding Thae Yong Ho

As many are well-aware of by now, Thae Yong Ho, a former diplomat to DPRK’s embassy in London defected to south Korea. South Korean Unification Ministry spokesman Jeong Joon Hee said that Thae Yong Ho decided to defect because of “his disgust with the government of North Korean leader Kim Jong Un, his yearning for South Korean democracy and worries about the future of his children” or have sometimes been quoted as he “yearned for a liberal and democratic country”. Why you would go to south Korea when yearning for a liberal and democratic country would be as moving to Ireland as you want to live in a country where you have great abortion rights. The current south Korean government under president Park Geun Hye have been very efficient when it comes to banning opposition parties and trade unions, but that is also what Park Geun Hye and her friends consider “liberal” and “democratic”.

Thae Yong Ho was instructed to return home in June for questioning as regards the embezzlement of huge amount of state funds, leakage of state secrets for money and rape of a minor, and the Central Public Prosecutors Office of the DPRK looked into his crimes and issued a legal document on starting the investigation on July 12. That is also when he decided to escape. Thae and his family have now been smuggled out of Britain with the help of US and British intelligence agents to a US military base in Germany, where they then boarded a plane escorted by two Typhoon fighter jets. A lot of questions have been raised after this spectacular escape.

As an investigation against him was undergoing, why did he have to escape at this convenient moment? Britain have demonstrated that they have no respect for the law of the DPRK. Considering the circumstances though, as one of the charges against him was leakage of state secrets for money, it is not a surprise that it is in the interest of the British imperialists to protect their spy.

When it comes to the case of Julian Assange, who has been sheltered by the Ecuadorian embassy in London for over four years, the British authorities were very eager to get him out. According to their own story, the British authorities would like to extradite him to Sweden for questioning in four alleged sexual offences. Even though Julian Assange is granted asylum in Ecuador since 2012, he is still risking arrest if leaving the embassy. Britain was even talking about to go in and arrest Assange based on the “Diplomatic and Consular Premises Act 1987”, but was later retracted after condemnations from Ecuador’s Foreign Minister Ricardo Patiño and President Rafael Correa due to its nature as a clear breach of international law and the protocols set out in the Vienna Convention. It’s likely that British authorities backed off as the world was watching them and risking their “good name” wasn’t worth it. If Assange is leaving the embassy, it is most likely that he won’t be extradited to Sweden, but the United States where he will face the death penalty or life imprisonment for his involvement in WikiLeaks and its exposure of atrocities committed by the US. The Swedish authorities have now finally agreed to meet Assange for questioning inside the embassy, something that he requested several years ago.

As Britain clearly have demonstrated its willingness to extradite someone for his alleged sexual offences, why can’t they do the same when it comes to a DPRK citizens who allegedly raped a minor?

Thae Yong Ho have made some minor blunders before that is now making it more obvious that he have been working for Western intelligence services over a longer period of time. Thae provided the visa to the right-winged BBC reporter Rupert Wingfield-Hayes, who was expelled from the DPRK in May after constantly insulting his guides and other Koreans he met. In the episode of “Panorama” he featured in, he even said that the children in a newly opened Children Hospital in Pyongyang were actors. Many racist groups around Europe have used the same mentality when attacking apathetic refugee children arriving alone, for faking their apathy. Thae have also been among those who advocates an opening of the DPRK to Western investment. It might not sound to bad to a layman, but that is what anti-DPRK propagandists are talking about where they believe that the DPRK in that way would become a “new” China and abandon socialism.

That the DPRK would abandon socialism is far away from the truth and is more like an unrealistic vision by the capitalists, but when you have a closer look at the ties between Thae and other advocates of capitalism it makes more sense. Thae was a regular visitor to meetings organised by the Communist Party of Great Britain (Marxist-Leninist)(CPGB-ML). The CPGB-ML officially supports China and consider it a socialist country. How a group that consider themselves to be Marxist-Leninist also consider China to be socialist does only have one explanation – they are not Marxist-Leninist. We can be certain that Chairman Mao Zedong would condemn China and other revisionists such as the CPGB-ML. A logical explanation to the CPGB-ML’s stance on China is that one of their central committee members, Keith Bennett, have earned huge amounts of money from capitalist ventures with British-Chinese ventures. CPGB-ML’s chairman Harpal Brar, owns numerous residential properties in West London and part-owns a company in Kashmir.


Thae Yong Ho (left) at a CPGB-ML meeting along with their capitalist chairman Harpal Brar (right).

It is reported that several members of the CPGB-ML walked out in protest of the business interests of Harpal Brar and Keith Bennett and some former members have also stated that not simply the business dealings but their perception of Keith Bennett as a “collaborator with imperialism” and the fact that he is protected and shielded by Harpal Brar and other leaders of their party. The fact that all the material on China and Korea in their own magazine Lalkar is written by Bennett, doesn’t make it less curious. The CPGB-ML is one of the most outspoken anti-Juche parties and their leaders are known for using entryism in previous organisations. That they have been working with someone like Thae whom they can walk the capitalist road together with is not surprising.

The allegations against Thae have apparently not came out of nowhere, but the whole story about defection for the reason that he wanted some south Korean “democracy” or a “liberal” society is apparently fabricated in retrospect – why else would he disappear after being requested to answer to these allegations and why else would he disappear and reappear over a month later that he was asked to participate in the investigation. For a party whom call themselves friends of Korea, they have since Thae’s defection not condemned it besides having a few lines written on their youth organisation (Red Youth) web:
This no doubt reflects some deep difficulties he felt he could not resolve, and is a personal tragedy for Thae and his family. We knew him and are saddened by his decision, which came apparently ‘out of the blue’.

The revisionists of the CPGB-ML have apologised on Thae’s behalf with words like “a revolutionary may fail, in conviction, courage or ability. We all face failure in all the great, and sometimes petty, tasks we set ourselves, after all.”… how corruption and rape of a minor is relevant in this case is not explained by these “friends” of Korea. CPGB-ML have clearly stated that Thae’s previous work with them can’t be undermined due to his crimes.



To find out more about the capitalist activities where Keith Bennett of the central committee of the CPGB-ML earned money by ripping off people, see the two following links:

KCNA Commentary Accuses S. Korean Regime of Orchestrating Fresh Smear Campaign against DPRK

Pyongyang, August 20 (KCNA) — The south Korean puppet regime is busy ratcheting up the anti-DPRK smear campaign and confrontation.

Of late, the Park Geun Hye group of traitors in south Korea carried out an operation to bring to south Korea a DPRK’s diplomat who fled his mission in London with his family for fear of legal punishment for his crimes.
He was instructed to return home in June last for questioning as regards the embezzlement of huge amount of state funds, leakage of state secrets for money and rape of a minor.

The Central Public Prosecutors Office of the DPRK looked into his crimes and issued a legal document on starting the investigation on July 12.
He deserved a legal punishment for his crimes, but he took to flight, betraying his country and parents and other kith and kin. He thus revealed himself as human scum bereft of elementary sense of moral obligation and conscience.

As already reported, the south Korean puppet regime committed such a hideous terrorism as kidnapping innocent citizens of the DPRK in daylight and taking them to south Korea. Not content with this, it is using the above-said bete noire for the anti-DPRK smear campaign and confrontation in a sinister bid to tarnish the DPRK’s international prestige at any cost and divert elsewhere the south Korean public criticism of its unpopular rule.

Great irony is that the south Korean puppet group is working hard to help the criminal improve his image by floating sheer lies that he was in charge of the party work at his mission and he was a son of an anti-Japanese revolutionary fighter and the like.
A dumping ground is full of blowflies.

The already tattered anti-DPRK smear campaign kicked off by the Park Geun Hye regime with criminals and human scum involved, taken aback by the ever-rising prestige of the DPRK, would only throw it into a bottomless quagmire.

What merits a serious attention is that the British authorities, who paint their country as a law-governed state, handed him to the south Korean puppet regime hell-bent on confrontation with the fellow countrymen in the DPRK in disregard of its legitimate demand for sending back the criminal and the international practice on his extradition.

From the outset of the incident the DPRK had informed the UK of what he committed and asked for his extradition for investigation.

However, the UK handed over the fugitive and his family carrying no passports to the south Korean puppet forces, contrary to its duty to protect the foreign diplomats in its country, thereby besmirching its image as a law-governed state.
By whisking off the criminal the UK left such indelible blot as getting involved in the crime and inciting the south Korean regime’s confrontation with the fellow countrymen in the DPRK.

Such act against elementary good faith perpetrated by the UK would only further deteriorate the complicated north-south relations and it would not do the UK good either. -0-

Harsh Criticism of YouTuber Louis Cole for Visiting the DPRK

The successful YouTube video blogger Louis Cole have been to the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK), where he have uploaded films from his trip. After saying that he wanted to focus on positive things in the DPRK as he’s not a political expert and that there are so much criticism against the DPRK in the media, there’s no point in him focusing on the politics of the DPRK. Even though Louis Cole have made clear that he’s not a supporter of the “the North Korean ideologies” (his poor choice of wording clearly demonstrate that he’s politically illiterate). “I am not an investigative journalist. I don’t really do political commentary and there are other places on the internet you can go to find those kinds of things,” Cole added. Even though he have demonstrated his lack of knowledge of the politics of the DPRK and also admitted that he didn’t go there for a political visit, but to do his thing – vlogging about his travels. He have nonetheless already been attacked and criticized for being paid by the government of the DPRK to make these videos, and has been accused for being “used for North Korean propaganda”. These conspiracy theories made up by rabid anti-communists are nothing new. Every friend of People’s Korea have most likely at some occasions been accused of being a paid agent of the DPRK or the classic of being “used for North Korean propaganda”. The conspiracy theory emerging from the web that Louis Cole was paid and used for propaganda purposes have even been quoted and used by some main stream media, which eventually forced him to publicly deny the allegations. It is absurd to see how one who have no political motivation can’t visit the DPRK without getting showered with criticism. For sad but obvious reasons, anti-DPRK conspiracy theories have it easy to break through and make it into the mainstream media.

When Denis Rodman and the Harlem Globetrotters went to Pyongyang to do what they do – play basketball – Denis Rodman was also attacked by the establishment for not going with any political intentions, but to play basketball. Other players of Harlem Globetrotters were extorted by their sponsors that if they played the match, their sponsorships would be withdrawn, and it was close that the match never happened because of the politically motivated witch hunt against Harlem Globetrotters.

A Music video is now released on Louis’s YouTube channel, FunForLouis, where his videos from his DPRK trip is also featured. The DPRK are always open to dialogue and to build friendship based on mutual respect with anyone, and it looks like that Louis have realized that.

Audiobook: Kim Il Sung – “Go all out for Victory in the War”

KFA Ireland are proud to present this audiobook published by Stimmekoreas from 2013, read and performed by KFA Ireland’s very own Jay MacGowan.

Kim Il Sung’s classic speech, “Go all out for Victory in the War”, were broadcasted on the first day of war on June 26, 1950, and the historic radio address of President Kim Il Sung was transmitted on waves all over the world.

“Dear fellow countrymen,

Dear brothers and sisters,

Officers, non-commissioned officers and men of our People´s Army,

Guerrillas operating in the southern half of the Republic,

On behalf of the Government of the Democratic People´s Republic of Korea, I make this appeal to you:”

In the historic radio address he said the history of mankind shows that a people that defies death and rises in the struggle for freedom and independence is always victorious. He declared that victory of the Korean people is certain and the just struggle of the Korean people will triumph.

The radio address “Go all out for Victory in the War” he made that day roused the entire Korean people to victory in the war, giving them great strength and courage. It was an inspiring banner and fighting program for the Korean people and service personnel of the Korean People´s Army who turned out in the defense of their country against the US imperialists. In hearty response to his radio address, more than 800,000 youth and students went out to the front and the workers conducted wartime campaign for increased production and all-people movement to transport war supplies to the front.

Atrocities to Follow in the Steps of the United States New Biochemical Laboratory in South Korea

The Korean People’s Army Mission at Panmunjom issued a statement on August 1 in regards of the US forces decision to set up a laboratory of biochemical weapons in south Korea under the so-called “Jupiter plan”, in order to research on toxic bacteria such as anthrax and botulinus which have very high lethality. According to the United States plan to set up the laboratory, necessary personnel and equipment will be shipped to south Korea until November and the construction will start next year.

The fact that the US have signed UN’s Chemical Weapons Convention doesn’t make a difference in their ambitions to develop and use chemical weapons. During the Fatherland Liberation War, the US perpetrators used germ warfare by dropping bombs full of insects that were infected with pest and cholera among other deadly deceases. Napalm is probably the most well-known chemical weapon, though not banned under the Chemical Weapons Convention (as it is an important “trademark” of the United States), due to its extensive use by the US in Korea and Vietnam. In 1980, the UN declared the use of napalm on areas of civilian population a war crime, but that’s exactly what the US military did in World War II by dropping enough napalm in one bombing raid on Tokyo to burn 100,000 people to death, injure a million more, and leave millions without homes in the single deadliest air raid of World War II. That is of course without mentioning the approximately 250,000 civilians killed by US nuclear bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The warmongering criminals of the US have always denied the use of germ warfare in Korea, similar to how leading Nazis denied the holocaust for obvious reasons. Worth mentioning is the cooperation between the US and war criminals from Germany and Japan. The US populace did not learn of its government’s post-war deal with Nazis, or its amnesty of the Japanese Imperial Army’s Unit 731, until nearly 40 years later.

The United States have a long history of using chemical weapons, not only against soldiers, but also against civilians. The US Army tested chemicals on black St. Louis Neighborhoods in the 1950s, and again a decade later. The Army used motorized blowers atop a low-income housing high-rise, at schools and from the backs of station wagons to send a dangerous compound into the already-hazy air in predominantly black areas of St. Louis. The official version given by the authorities at the time was that the government was testing a smoke screen that could shield St. Louis from aerial observation “in case the Russians attacked”. Since the tests, an alarming number of the area’s residents have developed cancer and many died within a few years.

The savage violence of the police against protesters of the Occupy movement in 2011 was well documented, and included the use of tear gas and other chemical irritants. Tear gas is prohibited under the Chemical Weapons Convention, but the US police force is not afraid to violate UN conventions. One of the greatest massacres in US history was carried out by the FBI in 1993. During a siege by the religious group Branch Davidians, the FBI attacked Branch Davidians compounds with tear gas that ignited, killing 76 people including 27 children, including babies and toddler. The massacre took place on April 19 – just over two months after the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention.

There are of course all the proxy wars fought by the US where their client states have used chemical weapons provided by the US, against their enemies. One of the more well-known cases is when the CIA Helped Saddam Hussein massacre Iranians and Kurds with chemical weapons in 1988 or more recently, in August 2013 when US-backed terrorists in Syria killed approximately 1700 civilians using sarin and tried to blame it on the Syrian government in order to push for an imperialist invasion of Syria. The imperialists that wishes for Al-Assad to be “removed” were quick to join the bandwagon, even though there were no evidence of that the Syrian government attacked its own people. It is now confirmed though who carried out the attack.


In 2004, the US lied about their usage of white phosphorus against civilians in the Iraqi city of Fallujah. The list of atrocities carried out by the US in violation to UN conventions would be better content suited for a book due to the countless amount. The US have constantly been lying about their use of chemical weapons or justified them in a perverted way. To see how the US have became the home of the greatest war criminals ever, both American and others is probably as scary as it can get. To see how the US is now about to expand their arsenal of chemical weapons on the Korean peninsula must not be mistaken for anything but the war preparations against the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea they have planned since they were forced out by the Korean People’s Army and other in 1953.